Mohammad Yousuf

Mohammad Yousuf

Musings of a Scientist

The Quran and Modern Science

Posted by [email protected] on October 22, 2011 at 12:20 AM


The Quran and Modern Science


The history of the infinitely large universe, and its history are questions which may be difficult to answer some decades ago, but modern astronomers and astrophysicists are able to tell about the accurate formation of the universe.


The well establish concept is that the whole universe was initially a single mass which subsequently split up into different fragments resulting in the formation of the galaxies which then gave birth to the stars, planets, sun, moon, earth etc.


1. Formation of the Universe


All this is discovered by the scientist in a very recent time, but amazingly all this concept of the formation of the universe is given in the Quran in 7th century.


Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) (21:30)


أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ


Translations: “Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were one piece. Then, we parted them” Verse 30, Surah Al-Ambiya (21)


The verse gives a brief version of the formation of the universe, it is stated here evidently that the earth and the heavens were a single piece earlier. The universe is formed by the separation of one single mass. This is the fact exposed by the modern astronomy, and cosmology today. But the same information had been provided by the Quran in 7th century. An ordinary person of that time can not provide such accurate and precise information without the aid of spaceship or telescopes! This means that book (Quran) is not written by a man, but is book from Allah.


2. Status of Universe at its time of formation


It is a firmly established concept that the universe was in gaseous state at an early stage of its formation. This fact is foretold by the Quran 1400 years ago.


Fussilat (Explained in Detail) (41:11)


ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاء وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ


Translations: “Then he rose over towards that heaven when it was smoke (Dukhan), and said to it and to the earth: 'come both of you willingly or unwillingly' they both said: 'we come willingly'". Verse 11, Surah Ha-Mim (41)


The Arabic world (Dukhan) is translated as smoke which is the gaseous state. The Quran describes very clearly that the universe was smoke before its creation, and it is now certified by the modern astronomy. Astronomers have pictures of galaxies being formed out of smoke which is the origin of the universe. It was stated almost fourteen hundred years ago in the Quran. The question persists, how can a 7th century book contain such profound scientific facts about the physical universe which were far beyond the imagination of the people of the Arab?


Who told Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم that the universe was smoke before its creation? Whatever it could be assumed, but it is very clear that this information must have come from a supernatural source.


3. Nature of the Moon and the Sun


We are aware of the fact that the Sun generates light itself while the moon only reflects the Sun's light. The nature of the Sun and the Moon is stated by the Quran as:


Yunus (Jonah) (10:5)


هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاء وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا


Translations: “God is the one who has made the sun a shining glory and the moon a light (of beauty)”. Verse 5, Surah Yunus (10)


Al-Furqan (The Criterion) (25:61)


تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ فِي السَّمَاء بُرُوجًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجًا وَقَمَرًا مُّنِيرًا


Translations: “Blessed is He who made constellations in the skies, and placed there in a lamp and a moon giving light”. Verse 61, Surah Al-Furqan (25)


Nuh (Noah) (71:15)


أَلَمْ تَرَوْا كَيْفَ خَلَقَ اللَّهُ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ طِبَاقًا


Nuh (Noah) (71:16)


وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا



Translations: 71:15 “See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another? And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) Lamp?” Verse 15, 16, Surah Nuh (71)


Throughout the Quran, the term used for the Sun is never used for the moon. The Quran points out very clearly the moonlight and the sunlight. It has been mentioned identically all the time, and never mixed up with each other. It is science which discovered the difference between the sun and moon. But it was Muhammad (SAW) who told about these natures of two heavenly bodies, question arises here who told the Prophet 1400 years ago? Did he accidentally select the appropriate terms for the sun and the moon? Why did he not refer to the sun as light and to moon as lamp or shining glory, if He was just guessing? It means that all these facts were discovered by some supernatural in the book (Quran).


4. Orbital Motion and the rotation of the Sun and the Moon

Orbital Movement is the movement of a body in the curved path around a centre.


Rotating Motion can be defined as, 'the spinning or turning of a body on its own axis.


It has been confirmed by the modern Astronomy that the sun and the moon not only travel in their orbits but also rotate about their own axis. According to the astronomical facts the sun takes about 250 million years to complete one revolution around the centre of galaxy and it takes approximately 25 days to rotate around its own axis. Whereas the moon takes the same time i.e., 29.5 days to complete its rotating motion on its own axis, as it revolves around the earth. This was learned 1400 years ago in the Quran as:


Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) (21:33)


وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ


Translations: “God is the one who created the night, the day, the sun and the moon each one is travelling in an orbit with its own motion”. Verse 33, Surah Al-Ambiya (21)


It would be ridiculous to suggest that Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم had a powerful telescope however the right option might be that, if Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم had simply informed the orbital movement of the sun and the Moon but also made a reference to their own motion in space which definitely leads to conclude that it was beyond possibility for a 7th century person to give such a detailed description of the motions of the sun and the moon.


5. Solar Apex


Ya-Sin (Ya-Sin) (36:38)


وَالشَّمْسُ تَجْرِي لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا ذَلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ


Translations: “The sun runs its course to a fixed place. This is the decree of the Almighty, the full of knowledge”. Verse 38, Surah Yasin (36)


The above verse describes that the sun is travelling towards a fixed place which has been confirmed by modern astronomical research.


Modern astronomy discovered that the sun along with the solar system is evolving in space towards a point situated in the constellation of Hercules whose exact location is firmly recognized and which has also been given a name “The solar apex”. This is another scientific fact described by the Quran over 1400 years ago.


6. Death of the Sun


At-Takwir (The Folding Up) (81:1)

إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ


Translation: “When the sun is overthrown”. Verse 1, Surah At-Takwir (81)


There can be no distrust that this verse refers to the end of the sun. If we compare this statement with the views of modern science we came to know that science also predicts an end to the sun.


This is the death of the sun which is mentioned in above quoted Quranic verse.


7. The Red Rose Nebula


Ar-Rahman (The Most Beneficent) (55:37)


فَإِذَا انشَقَّتِ السَّمَاء فَكَانَتْ وَرْدَةً كَالدِّهَانِ


Translation: “When the sky is torn apart, so it is (like) a red rose, like ointment”. Verse 37, Surah Al-Rahman (55)


The Arabic word used in this verse is ‘Wardatan’ its meaning are red rose. To understand this verse, a picture is given below which is taken from NASA website:


It is a blowing up star 3000 light years away. It is also mentioned in NASA site that this picture represents a dying star which inevitably is the awaiting faith of our own solar system. We can observe that this picture is remarkably resembles with the Red Rose which is told by the Glorious Quran fourteen hundred years ago. Think! We discovered all this by using powerful telescopes, which the Quran has foretold in 7th century. If some one consider that Hazrat Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم just made the guess then why did he not suggest that when sky is torn apart, it is likely sun flower or any flower else? But why only the Rose?


8. Sequence of Day and Night


Az-Zumar (The Groups) (39:5)


خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ يُكَوِّرُ اللَّيْلَ عَلَى النَّهَارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّهَارَ عَلَى اللَّيْلِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى أَلَا هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفَّارُ


Translation: “He coils the night upon the day and He coils the day upon the night”. Verse 5, Surah Al-Zumar (39)


There are many verse of this subject in the Quran but we are taking one of them. In this verse the word coil deserves full attention which is the translation of the Arabic verb “Kawwara” This verb is used here to describe the action of coiling a turban around the head.


Sequence of the day and night, we come to know today that the earth rotates on its axis and go around completely in twenty four hours, During its rotation half of its surface facing the sun, and the remaining half is in darkness. As the sun generates light permanently so the half part of the earth facing sun has day and the other half has night.


This continuous coiling of the day and night has been mentioned in the holy Quran 1400 years before.


9. Earth Shape


Modern science discovered recently that the earth resembles an ellipsoid and is not a perfect sphere. The Quran has told this fact in the 7th century as:


An-Naziat (Those Who Pull Out) (79:30)


وَالْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا


Translation: “And the earth moreover, Hath he made egg shaped”. Verse 30, Surah Al-Naziat (79)


In the verse an Arabic word “Dahaha” is used which has translation of ‘Egg Shaped’ thus this verse precisely indicates that the shape of the earth resembles an egg i.e. e, ellipsoid which is now proved by the modern science. It is beyond possibility that Muhammad (SAW) being a common person could mention the shape of the earth correctly over fourteen centuries before.


10. Expansion of the Universe


Astronomers once thought that the universe was static and unmoving. But in 1925 an American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble made a surprising discovery that the universe is not static and unmoving in fact it is expanding. He provided observational evidence for the expansion of the universe. Albert Einstein was the one who provided the theory of the universe’s unmoving. When Hubble proved that universe is not static, Einstein declared his static model as “One of the greatest mistake of my career”.


This startling discovery of the recent time was confirmed by the Quran more than 1400 years ago.


Az-Zariyat (The Winds that Scatter) (51:47)


وَالسَّمَاء بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ


Translation: “The Heaven, we have built it with power. Verily we are expanding it”. Verse 47, Surah Al-Zariyat (51)


Isn’t it a great wonder of the Quran? And is not this science that proves the truth of Quran? Answer is ‘yes’.


11. Statistics in the Holy Quran


A renowned scholar Dr. Tariq Al-Suwaidan has conducted the statistical study of the Holy Quran. The glimpse of the study is provided here. Value of this miracle study would be understood, if we recall in our memory that the existence of statistics as subject was unlike today.


Part of information appearing here is derived from ‘SCIENCE: the Proof of Islam’s Truth’ by Safoora Babar.

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